The flow transition from axisymmetric to fully 3D patterns are predicted. The main simulation steps of geometry creation, meshing, boundary condition definitions and initial conditions were very easy to set up for this case study. Particularly, the use of structured meshes and inbuilt primitive geometry shapes in FLOW-3D makes meshing and geometry creation simple. The simulation below shows a case with four heaters. In the final application, pattern formation due to the Bénard–Marangoni instability in a liquid layer in square geometry of small aspect ratio is investigated for realistic Biot number and dynamically deformable fluid interface. © 2020 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. In the case of temperature dependence, this phenomenon may be called thermo-capillary convection (or Bénard–Marangoni convection). Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. One way of performing these actions is using thermocapillary actuation. This spatial variation is caused because surface tension is higher in the colder regions. Spatial variation in surface temperature, in combination with hydrophilic surface in the center and a surrounding hydrophobic surface, provides an effective microfluidic system for fluid routing with no lateral fluid loss. Motived by recent ground-based and microgravity experiments investigating the interfacial dynamics of a volatile liquid (FC-72, Pr=12.34) contained in a heated cylindrical cell, we numerically study the thermocapillary-driven flow in such an evaporating liquid layer. Thermocapillary actuation on an array of 3 heaters activated in a sequential order. Copyright © 2020 Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors. FLOW-3D’s powerful free surface and surface tension models can be readily appreciated in the evolution of the droplet surface over time as the microheaters are activated in programmable manner. A fully wetting surface causes more fluid loss, therefore it is ideal to keep a partially wetting surface. In the second case, the convection velocity in the liquid layer is compared with an analytical result. There can be an array of tens and hundreds of heaters to transport fluid to longer distances, although still within the micro scales. Microfluidic devices like lab-on-a-chip involve parallel and automated routing, mixing and reacting of a multitude of liquid samples. An improved one-sided model of evaporation is developed. Thermocapillary actuation on an array of 3 heaters activated in a sequential order. FLOW-3D and TruVOF are registered trademarks of Flow Science, Inc. in the USA and other countries. We use cookies to help provide and enhance our service and tailor content and ads. The flow morphology is nearly axisymmetric at low laser power (P). As the last in a series of blogs related to microfluidics and multi-physics processes, this case study highlights once again the ability to use FLOW-3D to simulate such multi-physics, micro-scale processes with good results. The surface gradient calculation is split into computing its length and direction in order to satisfy the correct thermal boundary condition at the interface without losing mobility of the interface. Particular attention is given to the prediction of the transition of the axisymmetric flow to fully three-dimensional patterns when the applied temperature increases. An evaporating liquid layer in a heated cylindrical cell is investigated numerically. FLOW-3D’s powerful free surface and surface tension models can be readily appreciated in the evolution of the droplet surface over time as the microheaters are activated in programmable manner. The simulation also considers high convective heat transfer and covers a wide range of Marangoni numbers up to 5000, where good agreement with both theoretical and experimental results is achieved. Such losses, while the fluid droplet is in motion, are minimized by proper arrangement of hydrophilic and hydrophobic patterned surfaces.

Multiple physics – heat transfer, surface tension and viscosity – are at play, highlighting the comprehensive multi-physics modeling capabilities of FLOW-3D. The method is applied to three different types of thermocapillary flow, namely thermocapillary migration of a droplet in an ambient fluid with linear temperature gradient, thermocapillary convection in a liquid layer under linear temperature gradient along the interface, and Marangoni convection due to Bénard–Marangoni instability. This propelling can be seen at around t=0 and t=0.02 seconds. At high Marangoni numbers, the numerical simulations revealed smaller-scale thermal patterns formed on the surface of a thinner evaporating layer, in qualitative agreement with experimental observations. ► DNS of thermocapillary migration. However, due to the inherent wettability of the material surface, some fluid loss takes place during the routing process. Direct numerical simulation of thermocapillary flow based on the Volume of Fluid method.

6, December 2003, Learn more about the power and versatility of modeling microfluidic applications with FLOW-3D >. Particular attention is paid to the evolution of the convective flow patterns surrounding the hot sphere as the latter is increasingly heated.

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